Leaf phenology, growth and photosynthesis in Pseudobombax munguba (Malvaceae)
Palavras-chave:Amazon, forest species, leaf physiology.
The munguba (Pseudobombax munguba) is a tree often found in low-land forests of the Amazon region, and there is a paucity of data regarding the ecophysiology of this species. The aim of this work was to determine the photosynthetic rates and growth of munguba saplings and to describe the leaf phenology of a munguba tree. In greenhouse-grown saplings (340 days old, n =15), grow rates in diameter, leaf expansion rates, light-saturated photosynthesis (PNsat) and stomatal conductance (gs) were determined. To describe the relationship between photosynthesis and leaf expansion regression analysis was used. In a second experiment, we described the leaf phenology of an adult tree by visually observing foliage changes at one week interval for two years. The leaves completed their expansion in 18 days, and leaf greening was completed in 40 days. There was positive relationship between photosynthesis and leaf increase in size during ontogeny, but there was no correlation between gs and leaf expansion (p > 0.05). Plant growth in diameter was 1.8 mm month‒1 (about 2.94 g of dry matter per day). The relative growth rate was low 0.010 g g–1 day–1, most likely because a low amount of biomass was allocated to leaves. In the adult tree, leaf senescence occurred in June-July and leaf shedding was concentrated mainly in August and by the second week of September the tree has already produced new leaves. It was concluded that the leaf longevity of munguba is 11 months. It is hypothesized that leaf senescence was induced by the high insolation that occur in the dry season.
Antúnez I, Retamosa EC & Villar R (2001) Relative growth rate in phylogenetically related deciduous and evergreen woody species. Oecologia, 128:172–180.
Asner GP, Scurlock JMO & Hicke JA (2003) Global synthesis of leaf area index observations: implications for ecological and remote sensing studies. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12:191–205.
Ballaré CL & Austin AT (2017) UV Radiation and Terrestrial Ecosystems: Emerging Perspectives. In: Jordan BR (Ed.). UV-B Radiation and Plant Life: Molecular Biology to Ecology. Oxfordshire, UK, CABI International. p. 23–38.
Camargo MAB & Marenco RA (2012) Growth, leaf and stomatal traits of crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) in central Amazonia. Revista Árvore, 36:07–16.
Craine JM & Reich PB (2001) Elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply alter leaf longevity of grassland species. New Phytologist, 150:397–403.
Dias DP & Marenco RA (2016) Tree growth, wood and bark water content of 28 Amazonian tree species in response to variations in rainfall and wood density. iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry, 9:445–451.
Fern K (2014) Useful Tropical Plants Database: Pseudobombax munguba. Avaliable at: http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Pseudobombax+munguba. Access in 26 of November of 2018.
Fonseca ET (1922) Indicador de madeiras e plantas úteis do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro. Oficinas Gráficas Villas Boas. 343 p, Available at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org. Access in 30 of November of 2018.
Gan S & Amasino RM (1997) Making sense of senescence (molecular genetic regulation and manipulation of leaf senescence). Plant physiology, 113:313–319.
Gouvêa PRS & Marenco RA (2018) Is a reduction in stomatal conductance the main strategy of Garcinia brasiliensis (Clusiaceae) to deal with water stress? Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology, 30: doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40626-018-0127-0.
Harlow BA, Duursma RA & Marshall JD (2005) Leaf longevity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) increases with depth in the canopy. Tree physiology, 25:557–562.
Hunt R, Causton DR, Shipley B & Askew AP (2002) A modern tool for classical plant growth analysis. Annals of botany, 90:485–488.
Kikuzawa K & Lechowicz MJ (2011) Ecology of Leaf Longevity, 1th ed. New York, Springer. 147 p.
Kikuzawa K, Onoda Y, Write IJ & Reich PB (2013) Mechanisms underlying global temperature-related patters in leaf longevity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22:982–993.
Kloeke AEEO, Douma JC, Ordonez JC, Reich PB & van Bodegom PM (2011) Global qualification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21:224–235.
Lee S, Seo PJ, Lee HJ & Park CM (2012) A NAC transcription factor NTL4 promotes reactive oxygen species production during drought‐induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 70:831–844.
Lim PO, Kim HJ & Nam HG (2007) Leaf senescence. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 58:115–136.
Lopes A (2015) Fenologia foliar da floresta amazônica de terra firme por imagens digitais RGB. Dissertação de mestrado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus. 38 p.
Lorenzi H (2009) Árvores brasileiras: manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas nativas do Brasil. 1ª ed. v. 3. São Paulo, Nova Odessa: Plantarum, 384 p.
Marenco RA & Vieira G (2005) Specific leaf area and photosynthetic parameters of tree species in the forest understorey as a function of the microsite light environment in central Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 17: 265-278.
Maruyama Y, Nakamura S, Marenco RA, Vieira G & Sato A (2005) Photosynthetic traits of seedlings of several tree species in an Amazonian forest. Tropics, 14:211–219.
Matsuki S & Koike T (2006) Comparison of leaf life span, photosynthesis and defensive traits across seven species of deciduous broad-leaf tree seedlings. Annals of Botany, 97:813–817.
Mendes KR & Marenco RA (2010) Leaf traits and gas exchange in saplings of native tree species in the Central Amazon. Scientia Agricola, 67:624–632.
Morton DC, Nagol J, Carabajal CC, Rosette J, Palace M, Cook BD, Vermote EF, Harding DJ & North PR (2014) Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season. Nature 506:221–224.
Munné-Bosch S & Alegre L (2002) Plant aging increases oxidative stress in chloroplasts. Planta, 214:608–615.
Munné-Bosch S & Alegre L (2004) Die and let live: leaf senescence contributes to plant survival under drought stress. Functional Plant Biology, 31:203–216.
Nakamura S & Izumi M (2018) Regulation of chlorophagy during photoinhibition and senescence: lessons from mitophagy. Plant and Cell Physiology, 59:1135–1143.
Oliveira MF & Marenco RA (in press) Gas exchange, biomass allocation and water-use efficiency in response to elevated CO2 and drought in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis, Meliaceae). iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry.
Reich PB & Flores‐Moreno H (2017) Peeking beneath the hood of the leaf economics spectrum. New Phytologist, 214: 1395–1397.
Reich PB, Uhl C, Walters MB, Prugh L & Ellsworth DS (2004) Leaf demography and phenology in Amazonian rain forest: a census of 40 000 leaves of 23 tree species. Ecological monographs, 74: 3–23.
Reich PR (1995) Phenology of tropical forests: patterns, causes, and consequences. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73:164–174.
Russo SE & Kitajima K (2016) The ecophysiology of leaf lifespan in tropical forests: adaptive and plastic responses to environmental heterogeneity. In: Goldstein G & Santiago LS (Eds.).Tropical Tree Physiology: Adaptations and Responses in a Changing Environment. Cham, Germany, Springer. p. 357–383.
Schöngart J, Piedade MTF, Ludwigshausen S, Horna V & Worbes M (2002) Phenology and stem-growth periodicity of tree species in Amazonian floodplain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18:581–597.
Shaver GR (1981) Mineral nutrition and leaf longevity in an evergreen shrub, Ledum palustre ssp. decumbens. Oecologia, 49:362–365.
Shipley B (2006) Net assimilation rate, specific leaf area and leaf mass ratio: which is most closely correlated with relative growth rate? A meta‐analysis. Functional Ecology, 20:565–574.
Taiz L & Zeiger E (2002) Plant physiology. 3 th ed. Sunderland, USA, Sinauer Associates. 623 p.
Tichá I, Čatský J, Hodáňová D, Pospišilivá J, Kaše M & Šesták Z (1985) Gas exchange and dry matter accumulation during leaf development. In: Šesták Z (Ed.). Photosynthesis during leaf development. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Dr W. Junk Publishers, p. 157–216.
Vincent G (2006) Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes. Annual Botany, 97:245–255.